Biodiversity is constantly changing over different scales due to the turnover of biological units across all spatial and temporal scales. The objective of this term paper is through undertaking a systematic review to demonstrate the distribution of biodiversity at different spatial and temporal scales on species component of biological diversity of better-known plant, animal species, microorganism and ecosystem diversity and factors affecting the distribution of biodiversity. Biodiversity is best defined by patterns we see in the world around us and these patterns are the raw material for understanding biological diversity. The distribution of biodiversity is not uniform throughout the world but shows a rather uneven distribution. So that, species diversity decreases as we move away from the equator towards the poles. These indicate that, in the tropical region, unlike temperate ones, there is more solar energy, water availability, and a relatively more constant and predictable environment. The distribution of biodiversity is influenced by a large number of environmental factors, such as the geological history of the area, environmental stability, ecosystem productivity, habitat heterogeneity and suitability, competition, and predation. Therefore, the understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of biodiversity are urgently required to formulate short and long term resource management strategies as well as biodiversity education and training activities are superior in disseminating innovative techniques and also sustainable use of biodiversity, building local capacity and increasing public understanding for biodiversity management can contribute to overcoming these rapidly changing.