Effects of processing on Duckweed (Lemna minor) as fish feedstuff


  • Augustine Eyiwunmi Falaye Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • Happiness Adegbola Ojo-Daniel Department of Fisheries Technology, College of Animal Health Technology, IAR&T Moor Plantation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan, Nigeria
  • Shakiru Okanlawon SULE Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ayetoro Campus, Ogun State,




Anti-nutritional factors, Amino acid, Aquatic macrophyte, Lemna minor, Duckweed meal


The nutritional value of duckweed (Lemna minor) has been investigated as a suitable substitute for soybean meal in aquafeed. However, information on its processed forms in the diets for better nutrients utilization are yet to be reported. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of treated duckweed meal (DWM) as soybean substitute. The proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and amino acids concentration of raw (Ra), cooked (Co) and soaked in potash (So) DWM were evaluated using standard methods. Crude protein of the test ingredients varied from 22.70% (Ra) to 29.45% (Co). Anti-nutrient factors of saponin, tannins and cyanide were significantly (p<0.05) reduced from 0.72±0.01% to 0.41±0.01%, 64.00±0.29 (mg/100g) to 20.50±0.29 (mg/100g) and 4.88±0.01 (mg/100g) to 2.61±0.35 (mg/100g) in Ra and Co samples, while oxalate and phytate significantly (p<0.05) reduced from 219.00±0.58 to 65.00±0.58 (mg/100g) and 732.84±0.37 to 165.80±0.52 (mg/100g) in Ra and So, respectively. However, the value of alkaloid (%) was significantly (p<0.05) increased from 4.10±0.58 (Ra) to 4.70±0.01 (So). There were also increase in the total amino acids, total essential amino acids and total non-essential amino acids of the treated (Co and So) DWM over the Ra, as well as the essential amino acid score of So over Co and Ra DWM samples. The implication of the processing revealed that nutritional and amino acid content was enhanced with substantial reduction in phytochemicals except alkaloids.



Abeza, R. H., Blake, J. T. and Fisher, E. J. (1968). Oxalate determination: Analytical problems encountered with certain plant species. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 51, 963-965.

Acosta, K., Appenroth, K. J., Borisjuk, L., Edelman, M., Heinig, U., Jansen, M. A. K.,

Oyama, T., Pasaribus, B., Schubert, I., Sorrels, S., Sree, K. S., Xu, S., Micheal T. P. and Lam, E. (2021). Return of the Lemnaceae: duckweed as a model plant system in the genomics and post genomics era. The Plant Cell, 33: 3207-3234.

Adeyeye, E. I. (2004). The chemical composition of liquid and solid endosperm of ripe coconut. Oriental J. Chem., 20, 471-478.

Agbo, N. W., Adjei-Boateng, D. and Jauncey, K. (2011). The potential of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by-products as alternative protein sources in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 23(4), 367-378.

Aghoghovwia, O. A., Obah, S. T. and Ohimain, E. I. (2018). Utilization of nuisance aquatic plant (Duckweed) in partial replacement of soybean meal in feeding Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings. Nigerian Annals of Pure and Applied Sciences maiden edition 113-117

Agume, A. S., Njintang, N. Y. and Mbofung, C. M. (2017). Effect of soaking and roasting on the physicochemical and pasting properties of soybean flour. Foods; 6(2), 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6020012

Alsmayer, R. H., Cunningham, A. E. and Hapich, M. L. (1974). Equation to predict PER from amino acid analysis. Food Tech., 28, 34-38.

Andriani, Y., Irawan, B., Iskandar, I., Zidni, I. and Partasasmita, R. (2019). Diversity of duckweed (Araceae-Lemnoideae), morphological characteristics and its potentials as food sources for herbivorous fishes in West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 20(6).

AOAC 1980 (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) Official method of analysis of the

AOAC (W. Horwitz Editor) Thirteenth Edition. Washington D.C, AOAC.

AOAC 2005 (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) Official method of analysis of the AOAC (W. Horwitz Editor) Eighteenth Edition. Washington D.C, AOAC.

Appenroth, K. J., Sowjanya, S. K., Volker, B., Simon, H., Walter, V., Matthias, L. and Gerhard, J. (2017). Nutritional value of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) as human food. Food Chemistry 217, 266–273.

Appenroth, K. J., Sree, K. S., Bog, M., Ecker, J., Seeliger, C., Böhm, V., Lorkowski S, Sommer K, Vetter W, Tolzin-Banasch K, Kirmse R, Leiterer M, Dawczynski C, Liebisch G. and Jahreis, G. (2018). Nutritional value of the duckweed species of the genus Wolffia (Lemnaceae) as human food. Frontiers in Chemistry, 6, 483.

Aremu, M. O., Olaofe, O. and Akintayo, E. T. (2006). Chemical composition and physicochemical characteristic of two varieties of bambara groundnut (vigna subterranean) Flours. J. Appl. Sci., 6, 1900-1903.

Aremu, M. O., Olaofe, O. and Orjioke, C. A. (2008). Chemical composition of Bambaragroundnut (vigna subterranean), Kersting, groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpa) and scarlet runner bean (phaseolus coccineus) protein concentrate. La Rivista Taliana Delle Sostanze Grasse, 85, 56-62.

Aremu, M. O., Olayioye, Y. E. and Ikokoh, P. P. (2009). Effects of processing on nutritional quality of kersting‟s groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpa L.) seed flours. J. Chem. Society, 34, 140-149.

Audu, S. S. and Aremu, M. O. (2011). Effect of processing on chemical composition of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flour. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10 (11), 1069-1075.

Belschant, A. A., Lyon, C. K. and Kohler, G. O. (1975). Sunflower, sesame and castor proteins. In: Food Protein Sources, N. W. Price (edn), University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 79 – 104.

Chakrabarti, R., Clark, W. D., Sharma, J. G., Goswami, R. K., Shrivastav, A. K. and Tocher, D. R. (2018). Mass production of Lemna minor and its amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Front. Chem. 6, 479. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2018.00479

Chavan, U. D., McKenzie, D. B. and Shahidi, F. (2011) Nutritional evaluation of beach pea protein isolate. Food Chem., 74, 177-181.

Cui, W. and Cheng. J. J. (2015). Growing duckweed for biofuel production: A review. Plant Biology, 17(Suppl. 1), 16–23.

Da, C. T., Lundh, T. and Lindberg, J. E. (2013). Digestibility of dietary components and amino acids in plant protein feed ingredients in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) fingerlings. Aquacult. Nutr. 19, 619–628.

Devi, R., Choudhury, C. and Jain, V. (2018). Effect of soaking on anti-nutritional factors in sun-dried seeds of hybrid pigeon pea to enhance their nutrients bioavailability. JPP 7(2), 675-680

Effiong, B. N. and Sanni, A. (2009). Effect of duckweed meal on the rate of mold infestation in stored pelleted fish feed. Advisory Opinion, 1, 26-31.

Erdal, Y., Ihsan, A. and Gökhan, G. (2004). Use of duckweed, Lemna minor, as a protein

feedstuff in practical diets for common carp, Cyprinus carpio, Fry. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 4, 105-109.

FAO/WHO (1991). Protein quality evaluation. Report of joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper No. 51, Rome.

FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). Energy and protein requirement. Report of a joint

FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation World Health Organization Technical Report Series 724, WHO Geneva, Switzerland.

Ghosh, M., Huynh, D., Sodhi, S. S., Sharma, N., Kim, J. H. and Kim, N. (2015). Impact of a novel phytase derived from Aspergillus nidulans and expressed in transgenic Lemna minor on the performance, mineralization in bone and phosphorous excretion in laying hens. Pakistan Vet. J. 35, 360–364.

Harborne, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London.

Hu, Z., Fang, Y., Yi, Z., Tian, X., Li, J., Jin, Y., He, K., Liu, P., Du, A., Huang, Y. and Zhao,

H. (2022). Determining the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of duckweed (Wolffia arrhiza) under artificial conditions. LWT, 153, 112477.

Ifie, I., Olatunde, S., Ogbon, O. and Umukoro, J. E. (2021). Processing techniques on phytochemical content, proximate composition, and toxic components in duckweed. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 27(3), 294-302.

Irabor, A. E., Obakanurhie, O., Nwachi, F. O., Ekokotu, P. A., Ekelemu, J. K., Awhefeada, O. K., Adeleke, L. M., Pierre Jrn, H. and Adagha, O. (2022). Duckweed (Lemna minor) meal as partial replacement for fish meal in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juvenile diets. Livestock Research for Rural Development 34 (1) 2022

Iskandar., Andriani, Y., Rostika, R., Zidni, I. and Riyanti, N. A. (2019). Effect of using fermented Lemna sp. in fish feed on growth rate of Nilem Carp (Osteochilus hasselti) World News of Natural Sciences 26, 157-166

Leng, R. A., Stambolie, J. H. and Bell, R. (1995). Duckweed - a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. Livestock Research for Rural Development 7 (1) 1995

Liu, Y., Xu, H., Yu, C and Zhou, G. (2021). Multifaceted roles of duckweed in aquatic phytoremediation and bioproduct synthesis. GCB Bioenergy 13: 70-82.

Lucas, G. M. and Markaka, P. (1975). Phytic acid and other phosphorus compound of bean (Phaseolus vugaris) J. Agric. Ed. Chem., 23, 13-15.

Muradov, N., Taha, M., Miranda, A. F., Kadali, K., Guja, A., Rochfort, S., Mouradov, A. R. (2014). Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for waste water treatment and renewable fuel and petrochemical production. Biotechnology for Biofuels 7, 30-47

Naseem, S., Bhat, S. U., Gani, A. and Bhat, F. A. (2021). Perspectives on utilization of macrophytes as feed ingredient for fish in future aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 13(1), 282-300.

Nowacki, K. (1980). Heat stable anti-nutritional factors of leguminous plants. In Summerfield R J, Buntong A H (eds) Advances in legume science, Kew: Royal Botanical Gardens pp 171-177.

Olaofe, O., Adayemi, F. O. and Adediran, G. O. (1994). Amino acid and mineral composition and functional properties of some oil seeds. J. Agric Food Chem., 42, 878-881.

Olaofe, O., Umar, O. Y. and Adediran, G. O. (1993). The effect of nematicides on the nutritive value and functional properties of cowpea seeds. Food Chem., 46, 337-342.

Olasunkanmi, J. B., Julius, O. T., Babalola, T. O., Jimoh, J. O. and Ariyomo, T. O. (2021). Alternative Feed Resources in Aquaculture: The Role of Underutilized Plants–A Review. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 655 (1) 012008sont. IOP Publishing.

Oshodi, A. A., Esuoso, K. O. and Akintayo, E. T. (1998). Proximate and amino acid composition of some under–utilized legume flour and protein concentrates. La Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse, 75-Agosto, 409-412.

Pagliuso, D., Grandis, A., Fortirer, J. S., Camargo, P., Floh, E. I. S. and Buckeridge, M. S. (2022). Duckweeds as promising food feedstocks globally. Agronomy, 12(4), 796.

Popova, A. and Mihaylova, D. (2020). Antinutrients in Plant-based Foods; Department of Catering and Tourism, University of Food Technologies, 26 Maritza Blvd., 4002, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Said, D. S., Chrismadha, T., Mayasari, N., Widiyanto, T. and Ramandita, A. (2022). Nutritional Content and Growth Ability of Duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza on Various Culture Media. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1062 (1) 012009). IOP Publishing

Samtiya, M., Aluko, R. E. and Dhewa, T. (2020). Plant food anti-nutritional factors and their reduction strategies: an overview. Journal of Food Production, Processing and Nutrition. Pp 1-14 https://doi.org/10.1186/s43014-020-0020-5 .

Shammout, M. W. and Zakaria, H. (2015). Water lentils (duckweed) in Jordan irrigation ponds as a natural water bioremediation agent and protein source for broilers. Ecol. Eng. 83, 71–77.

Sharma, J. G., Kumar, A., Saini, D., Targay, N. L., Khangembam, B. K. and Chakrabarti, R. (2016). In vitro digestibility study of some plant protein sources as aquafeed for carps Labeo rohita and Cyprinus carpio using pH-Stat method. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 54, 606–611.

Singh, D., Tiwari, A. and Gupta, R. (2012). Phytoremediation of lead from wastewater using aquatic plants. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8, 1-11.

Skillicorn, P. S. and Williams, S. A. (1993). A new aquatic farming system for developing countries pp 15-25.

Soetan, K. and Oyewole, O. (2009). The need for adequate processing to reduce the antinutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds: A review. Afr J Food Sci; 3(9), 223-32.

Sogbesan, O. A., Onoja, C. F., Adedeji, H. A. and Idowu, T. A. (2015). Utilization of treated duckweed meal (Lemna pausicostata) as plant protein supplement in African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juvenile diets. Fish Aquac J 6, 141. https://doi.org/10.4172/2150- 3508.1000141

Solomon, S. G. and Okomoda, V. T. (2012). Growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus fed duckweed (Lemna minor) based diets in outdoor hapas. International Journal of Research in Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2(4), 61-65

Sońta, M., Rekiel, A. and Batorska, M. (2019). Use of duckweed (Lemna L.) in sustainable livestock production and aquaculture – a review. Ann. Anim. Sci., 19(2), 257–271

Spackma, D. H., Stein, W. H. and Mare, S. (1958). Automatic recording apparatus for use in the chromatography of amino acids. Anal. Chem., 301, 1185-1190.

Sree, K. S., Adelmann, K., Garcia, C., Lam, E. and Appenroth, K. J. (2015). Natural variance in salt tolerance and induction of starch accumulation in duckweeds. Planta, 749, 169–182.

Stewart, J. J., Adams, W. W. III., López-Pozo, M., Doherty G. N., McNamara, M., Escobar, C. M., Demmig-Adams, B. (2021). Features of the Duckweed Lemna That Support Rapid Growth under Extremes of Light Intensity. Cells. 10, 1481. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061481

Tang, J., Li, Y., Ma, J. and Cheng, J. J. (2015). Survey of duckweed diversity in Lake Chao and total fatty acid, triacylglycerol, profiles of representative strains. Plant Biology, 17, 1066–1072.

Ullah, H., Gu, B., Khan, H., Akhtar, N., Rehman, K. U. and Umar, Z. U. (2022). Effect of growth medium nitrogen and phosphorus on nutritional composition of Lemna minor (an alternative fish and poultry feed) BMC Plant Biology 22, 214 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-022-03600-1

Vadivel, V. and Pugalanthi, M. (2008). Removal of anti-nutritional/toxic substances and improvement in protein digestibility of velvet bean seeds during various processing methods. JFST 45, 242-246.

WHO (2007). Joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation on protein and Amino acid requirements in human nutrition, 2002. Geneva, Switzerland.

Xu, J., Shen, Y., Zheng, Y., Smith, G., Sun, X. S., Wang, D., Zhao, Y., Zhang, W. and Li, Y. (2021). Duckweed (Lemnaceae) for potentially nutritious human food: A review, Food Reviews International, 1-5.

Xu, J., Zhao, H., Stomp, A. and Cheng, J. J. (2011). The production of duckweed as a source of biofuels. Biofuels, 3, 589-601.

Yan, Y., Candreva, J., Shi, H., Ernst, E., Martienssen, R. and Schwender, J. (2013) Survey of the total fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition and content of 30 duckweed species and cloning of a Δ6-desaturase responsible for the production of γ-linolenic and stearidonic acids in Lemna gibba. BMC Plant Biol. 13, 201.

Yahaya, N., Hamdan, N. H., Zabidi, A. R., Mohamad, A. M., Suhaimi, M. L. H., Johari, M. A. A. M., Yahya, H. N. and Yahya, H. (2022). Duckweed as a future food: Evidence from metabolite profile, nutritional and microbial analyses. Future Foods, 5, 100128

Zhao, Z., Shi, H. J., Wang, M. L., Cui, L., Zhao, H. and Yun, Z. (2015). Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on transcriptional regulation of genes encoding key 134 enzymes of starch metabolism in duckweed (Landoltia punctata). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 86, 72–81.




How to Cite

Falaye, A. E. ., Ojo-Daniel, H. A. ., & SULE, S. O. (2022). Effects of processing on Duckweed (Lemna minor) as fish feedstuff. Scientific Reports in Life Sciences, 3(4), 53–67. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7487341